After excessively painful labours, or those with a disturbing loss of control, fear of stillbirth or complications requiring emergency Caesarean section, some mothers suffer nightmares , and intrusive images and memories ‘ flashbacks ‘ , similar to those occurring after other harrowing experiences. They can last for months. Rates up to 5. Enduring symptoms require specific psychological treatment. Tocophobia The word comes from the Greek tokos, meaning parturition. Early authors like Ideler  wrote about this fear, and, in , Binder  drew attention to a group of women who sought sterilization because of tocophobia. In the last 40 years there have been a series of papers published mainly from Scandinavia. Tocophobia can be primary before the first child is born or secondary typically after extremely traumatic deliveries.
At the time of the offences, the appellant was a practising. Elements of offence – meaning of ‘account’- whether to order new trial where Crown could not succeed on case put at trial but might succeed at new trial on different case based on same evidence. Accessory after the fact to robbery in company. Victim a taxi driver – 2 other co-offenders – respondent aged 18 at time of offence – strong subjective features – supportive family – no priors – good character – stable employment.
Lies – public deterrence – custodial sentence – vulnerability of taxi drivers working alone at night. Guilty plea – sentences to be served concurrently.
Frontal Lobe Brain Injury Types & Causes Nearly two percent of the American population, as many as million people, today are living with the permanently disabling effects of a traumatic brain injury.
Posted on May 16, by suesspiciousminds This is a case decided by Recorder Howe QC, and it is not binding precedent, and also of course it turns on the individual facts of the case, but it does seem to me to have wider interest and implications on what the medical professionals said about whether a fall from a low level height could cause the sort of bleeding on the brain subdural haematomas which are often linked with non-accidental shaking injury.
There was also a skull fracture about a month later. In this case, the parents account was that the only incident of note was the child, 11 months old, had been standing, holding onto the back of a chair for support and had fallen backwards and banged his head on a laminate floor. The skull fracture they say was caused when the child fell and hit his head on a kerb. Could that have caused the serious injuries that he sustained? The subject even made the national news when Dr Waney Squier was struck off by the GMC for having a view that they considered to be out of step with mainstream thinking.
Here is what the experts said on this case, and I think it is very candid about the limitations of medical science and that the field develops and moves on. As indicated earlier, much of what is said relates to the very particular set of circumstances of this particular case, but some passages have potential wider interest. The Evidence Presented at the Hearing The Expert Evidence I have had the advantage of written and oral evidence by video link from 3 very experienced experts who regularly provide reports for family and criminal court proceedings.
All 3 experts maintain clinical NHS practices in addition to their medico-legal work and are very well placed due to their qualifications, years of experience and current clinical work to provide expert opinion concerning the likely causes of the injuries suffered by N. I have had the advantage of written and oral evidence by video link from 3 very experienced experts who regularly provide reports for family and criminal court proceedings.
The transcript records a very large measure of agreement between the experts that can be summarized in relatively short form.
Practice of Drilling Holes in the Cranium That Dates Back Thousands of Years Print Last year, archaeologists excavating burial caves in the south-central Andean province of Andahuaylas in Peru discovered the remains of 32 individuals dating back between and years and, incredibly, they found evidence of 45 separate surgical procedures on the skulls of the individuals. Cranial surgery, known as trephination, is one of the first ever surgical practices and is known to have begun in the Neolithic era.
It involves drilling a hole in the skull of a living person to cure illness such as convulsions, headaches, infections or fractures.
Non-accidental injury and the law R J ARTHUR, MBChB, FRCP, FRCR Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The Clarendon Wing, The General Infirmary at Leeds, Belmont Grove, well accepted following Kempe’s presentation of unexplained subdural haematoma or $ Dating of the injury. $ Diﬀerential diagnosis.
SHARE In the brain injury world, there are taboo subjects that family caregivers can’t wait to talk about among ourselves. The dark side of personality change is at the top of the list. In my recent post, After Brain Injury: Learning to Love a Strange r, I shared my experience of building a new relationship and marriage with my husband Alan. Alan suffered a severe anoxic brain injury following a massive heart attack and cardiac arrest. In this post, I’ll tell you more about the impact of personality change after brain injury.
Most of the time, Alan displayed his engaging pre-injury personality marked by kindness, love, curiosity, and humor. However, post-injury personality changes also meant that we dealt with bouts of intense anger, confusion, and unpredictable behavior.
Share this article Share He told also how his wife had sent him a text, saying, ‘Taking off, I love you’, shortly before the fateful flight. Mrs Chase was travelling in a private plane piloted her father-in-law, Dr David Chase, 63, and other family members en route to Key Largo, Florida. As they approached Corinth, Mississippi, mechanical failings meant the plane started to fail.
I am often in my own world of dreams and daydreams. I appear to be engaging in conversations when, in fact, I’m somewhere else. My wife, Anne Aylor, recognised this long ago. She coined a phrase.
As long ago as ,Cushing suggested that coughing, choking, and venous congestion may explain some forms of infant SDH , a hypothesis recently revived by Geddes, [48, 67] Biomechanics Biomechanics is the application of principles of physics to biological systems and has been the mainstay of research into motor vehicle safety for six decades. It was just such research into noncontact head injury from rear-end shunts that stimulated Guthkelch to formulate his hypothesis for SBS in . Ommaya  had caused concussion, SDH, and white matter shearing injury diffuse axonal injury in primates by whiplash.
Cory and Jones  generated forces that exceeded the injury threshold for concussion, but not for SDH or axonal injury. Their adult shaker volunteers fatigued after 10 seconds. These authors expressed their concerns regarding the difficulties in extrapolating to human infants the findings in both dummy and animal models.
Dilshad Hamid and Katherine Howells Image: Could not subscribe, try again laterInvalid Email A baby who died after fracturing her skull was unlawfully killed by one of her parents, an inquest has concluded. But there there will be no prosecutions over the death of a five-month-old baby who died after suffering a fractured skull, the hearing in Cardiff was told.
Coroner Christopher Woolley ruled that there was not enough evidence to determine which parent had been responsible. Little Sunaria Hamid-Howells – aged five months – was rushed to hospital from her home in Pontypridd on December 30 , but died from her injuries. After being taken first to the Royal Glamorgan Hospital, she was transferred to the paediatric intensive care unit at the University Hospital Wales, Cardiff.
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On 19 April a four month old child, M, suffered a catastrophic collapse at the home which she shared with her parents. At the time she was in the sole care of her father in a bedroom at the property. She stopped breathing for a period of about six minutes and had to be revived on a table in the kitchen where her father administered cardiopulmonary resuscitation. She was taken to hospital by ambulance following a call which was made by her mother.
She was subsequently found to have a number of injuries including extensive bilateral, multilayer retinal haemorrhaging; fresh subdural haemorrhages in all three intracranial compartments; and a moderate degree of encephalopathy. In addition, there were a number of petechial bruises on her body which were mapped and charted on photographs. These were considered by her treating clinicians at the time to be related to the brain injury she had sustained. Over the course of ten days, I have been dealing with a fact finding enquiry into the cause of those injuries.
The local authority now shares parental authority for M as a result of an interim care order which was made the day after M’s admission to hospital. It is accepted by the local authority that M’s mother played no part in causing these injuries to her daughter.
Download powerpoint The most common fracture site in both the abuse and non-abuse groups was parietal,w30 and the most common fracture type was linear. Meservy and colleagues found no significant differences between the two groups with respect to depressed, diastatic, or complex fractures but found that multiple or bilateral fractures or those that crossed suture lines were significantly more common in abused children.
We have also identified features related to the child or type of fracture sustained that should alert clinicians to consider physical abuse as a possible cause box 2. Features associated with possible child abuse Physical abuse should be considered in the differential diagnosis when an infant under 18 months presents with a fracture in the absence of an overt history of important trauma or a known medical condition that predisposes to bone fragility.
Subdural haematoma (SDH) is a well-known feature of NAHI and is the most common intracranial manifestation of non-accidental injury 21–23 It is thought to occur due to a tear in the dural bridging veins as a result of violent shaking or sudden impact to the head It is well established that the presence of multiple SDHs of varying.
Practice of Drilling Holes in the Cranium That Dates Back Thousands of Years Read the article on one page Last year, archaeologists excavating burial caves in the south-central Andean province of Andahuaylas in Peru discovered the remains of 32 individuals dating back between and years and, incredibly, they found evidence of 45 separate surgical procedures on the skulls of the individuals. Cranial surgery, known as trephination, is one of the first ever surgical practices and is known to have begun in the Neolithic era.
It involves drilling a hole in the skull of a living person to cure illness such as convulsions, headaches, infections or fractures. Although there is some merit to the technique and it is still practiced today for the relief of subdural haematoma, there is evidence to suggest that in ancient times people believed that illness was caused by a trapped spirit and that drilling a hole would allow the spirit to escape.
The skulls found in Peru show evidence that sections of the cranium were removed using a hand drill or a scraping tool, and this was conducted, of course, without the use of modern luxuries like anaesthesia. While some have suggested the skull traumas may have been the result of torture, Kurin explained that some of the remains showed evidence of their hair having been shaved and a herbal remedy placed over the wound, which all point to the fact that this was an attempt to heal sick or injured individuals.
An example of a skull that has undergone trephination, Peru.
Overview Overview Subdural hematomas SDH are 1 of the 3 types of extra-axial intracranial hemorrhages along with subarachnoid and epidural hemorrhages and usually occur as a result of trauma. Deceleration injuries are often the cause of subdural bleeding from rupturing of veins via a shearing mechanism. Other entities, such as child abuse and ventricular decompression, also can result in subdural bleeding, and spontaneous hemorrhages may occur in patients receiving anticoagulants or patients with a coagulopathy condition.
Compression of a dural sinus does not directly cause a subdural hematoma, although compression may result in a venous infarction. Chronic subdural hematoma is more common in elderly individuals because of the age-associated decrease in brain volume and the increase in venous fragility.
Start studying Blunt Force Injury. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. microscopic dating of contusions. very generalized; 30 mins to 4 hours: margination of white blood cells subdural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral contusions. Subgaleal hematoma. hemorrhage beneath the galea.
Angela Curran, a solicitor specialising in medical negligence at Gosforth-based solicitors Burnetts, has settled four multimillion pound claims against North East hospital trusts relating to catastrophic birth injuries. The increase in compensation paid by the NHS Litigation Authority may equate to the settlement of no more than a handful of additional cases. Following restrictions introduced by the last government, Legal Aid is now limited to claims for brain injury at birth – a huge number of medical negligence claims will never be brought.
Angela Kirtley, a specialist medical negligence lawyer at Irwin Mitchell in Newcastle, said: These are very complex cases, usually involving life-changing circumstances for the families involved. The NHS saves lives on a daily basis but there are occasionally issues and concerns regarding the training given to staff and it is important that these issues are resolved as soon as possible. A spokesman for City Hospitals Sunderland said: A complex caseload presentation does bear additional risk and challenge.
Sophie, now seven, has cerebral palsy affecting all four limbs so she cannot walk and has to use a wheelchair. She is also unable to speak and has difficulty breathing. She is now set for a large compensation payout. I am very sorry.
I mmediate Operative intervention is recommended for traumatic acute extradural or subdural hematomas, and thus reports on the natural history of these hematomas are rare. Although rapid resolution of acute subdural hematomas has been reported in some cases, 3, 4, 6 that of extradural hematomas is extremely rare. Case Report This year-old young man fell from a height of about 1 m and was transported to a local clinic.
D uring part of the academic year, Prof Pitcher suffered a subdural haematoma and was off sick. He claimed the university appointed another tutor to take over his teaching duties on a five.
This is an appeal by Warwickshire County Council “the local authority” against the dismissal on 20 October by His Honour Judge Cleary sitting as a high court judge, of its application for a care order in respect of a little girl, ML, who was born 7 December The issue before this court is whether the judge, at the conclusion of a fact finding hearing, convened to determine the cause of ML’s injuries and, heard over eleven days commencing 28 October , properly weighed and evaluated all the medical evidence put before him prior to concluding that he “could not hold” that ML’s father or indeed mother were responsible for the injuries suffered by ML.
Both parents are Lithuanian. The parents began to live together a few weeks prior to ML’s birth. They set up home in a multi-occupation property in which they had their own room with a shower, together with the shared use of a kitchen on a different floor of the building. The judge was of the view that “the true nature of the relationship has remained something of a mystery”. On 19 April ML had spent the first part of the day largely with her mother. In the afternoon, sometime between Although ML was seen briefly on several occasions by the mother when she went up to the bedroom, ML was thereafter in the care of the father.
In broad terms the father’s case was that he had attempted to settle ML, who began to cry, he had picked her up, and she had “spat out” her dummy, “given a cough” and fallen unconscious. An ambulance was called and the father carried out CPR until the paramedics attended at the house at ML was admitted to hospital, where she remained until discharged into foster care on 3 May
Hearing loss or hearing ringing tinnitus Blurred Vision Causes[ edit ] Subdural hematomas are most often caused by head injury , when rapidly changing velocities within the skull may stretch and tear small bridging veins. Subdural hematomas due to head injury are described as traumatic. Much more common than epidural hemorrhages , subdural hemorrhages generally result from shearing injuries due to various rotational or linear forces.
Subdural hematoma is also commonly seen in the elderly and in alcoholics, who have evidence of cerebral atrophy. Cerebral atrophy increases the length the bridging veins have to traverse between the two meningeal layers, hence increasing the likelihood of shearing forces causing a tear. It is also more common in patients on anticoagulants or antiplatelet drugs , such as warfarin and aspirin.
Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS), also known as abusive head trauma or non-accidental injury, as an unscientific medical misdiagnosis, or medical myth, falsely-accused of SBS, wrongfully convicted of child abuse, alternative causes.
Abstract Introduction Microscopic study of the organization of the Subdural Haemorrhage SDH verified against the time period can help us in the determination of its age which has serious medico-legal implications. Very few studies concerning the dating of SDH are present in the literature. Aim This study was conducted for dating the early subdural haemorrhage by routine histopathological stains. Materials and Methods A prospective analytical study was conducted during July to December A total of cases 50 males and 50 females fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in this study.
Routine histopathological staining of the subdural haematoma was done. Results Correlation between the frequency of a given histomorphological phenomenon and the length of the Post-Traumatic Interval PTI was evidential. All the histomorphological features, when correlated with PTI groups, were found to be statistically significant, except for Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes PMN.
Conclusion We concluded that routine histopathology was reliable in the dating of early subdural haemorrhages.